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  • 12 Jun 2021 12:00 PM | Christine R Henry

    Welcome to the June 2021 Quarterly Features issue of VAN.  Use this link to access the full June 2021 issue.   As a reminder, if you missed the 2021 Virtual Conference, or if you want to watch some of the paper and poster presentations again, the links are only available until June 22 on the VAF conference website.  This issue of VAN has a recap of the awards that were announced at the conference—congratulations to all the awardees.  Also included is the VAF President’s Column packed with information about ongoing projects and the state of the organization. Because this is our quarterly features issue, there are two articles from the field including a mysterious find in Augusta County, Virginia and the documentation of a disappearing industrial resource in Whitehall, New York, three board member profiles, and additions to our ever-growing VAF bibliography.  There are also three updates from members and a field school announcement. 

    This issue is also my last as the VAN Editor.  It has been my privilege to serve the VAF membership since 2014.  I have learned so much about our incredible organization and the wonderful people who are a part of VAF.  I truly appreciate all the contributions, encouragement, and support over the years as the digital newsletter has evolved and grown.  In the July issue, Marisa Gomez will take over as the VAN Editor.  She and her VAN team bring incredible creativity and energy and I can’t wait to see how VAN continues to evolve. Hope you enjoy this issue and keep all those wonderful contributions coming!

    Christine R. Henry

    VAN Editor

  • 12 Jun 2021 11:40 AM | Christine R Henry

    By Jim Buckley, VAF President

    photo courtesy of Jim BuckleyI’m excited to start my term as VAF President, especially given the great work of the board in recent years to put the organization in great shape! Our new monthly format for VAN will make it hard to keep up, but I’ll try to add organizational updates as often as possible…

    In the spirit of our recent conference being held onscreen, I’d like to make this column a kind of rolling credits to close out the action-packed feature we just experienced. First of all, we have to recognize our producer, director, and chief bottle-washer Brent Fortenberry, who signed up to hold an in-person conference in San Antonio last year and has now put on two virtual conferences before he even gets to welcome us to Texas next year! Brent’s organizational and technical skill are unmatched, and we appreciate the hard work of the many folks who worked to keep the VAF conference on track during these pandemic days, especially Michelle Jones and David Bergstone (conference website and registration) and the Texas A&M students who took virtual tickets and staffed events behind the scenes.

    Brent also co-organized the plenary session on fieldwork, which prompted great discussion about current and future practices. Our appreciation to Elaine Stiles, Danielle Wilkins, Sarah Lopez, and Arijit Sen for serving as our anchors for this conversation. The lively conversation in the breakout room “afterparty” indicates that this will be a lively topic at future meetings. Brent and I are planning a written follow-up with our speakers and others in a future issue of Buildings & Landscapes. Thanks also to our breakout room hosts for making things seem a little more normal and helping us keep the business of VAF busy: Kim Hoagland (New Books), Michael Chiarappa and Lydia Mattice Brandt (Buildings and Landscapes), Tom Carter (Special Series), Louis Nelson (Special Series), Marcia Miller and Jeff Klee (proposed Tidewater Chapter), Nicole Benjamin-Ma and Peter Michaud (longtime New England Chapter).

    Saturday served as our paper session day, even online, and I heard Richard Longstreth say that he had not heard so many good papers in a long time (strong praise indeed!). I agree with him, so many thanks to our Papers Committee of Sally McMurray, Myron Stachiw, and Ken Hafertepe for corralling and arranging such terrific research to present at the conference. Going above and beyond again was our cool cat Phil Gruen, who put together another groovy session of hip posters and with-it poster makers. I served as online host for an impressive poster by an architect from India, who stayed up till the middle of the night to show us her poster on some amazing decorated houses by an ethnic group in central India. If VAF can go to Jamaica and the Gaspe, why not South Asia?

    The heart of our banquet is always the revealing of award winners for books, fieldwork, and all around VAF-ness. Congrats to our winners and to all those whose work was submitted to the award committees, and tips of several hats to our many members who serve as judges. It seemed impossible to match the usual warmth of this event in virtual space but the amazing Maire O’Neill and Lydia Mattice Brant showed their inner cinematographers in the wonderfully-edited video of prizes and prizewinners. Their next feature will be a partnership with Ken Burns entitled “Vernacular America: The Bus Tour of a Nation.”

    Of course, no VAF conference is complete without the stirring presentation of highlights from the NEXT conference, and Ken Hafertepe had the crowd on its feet ready to two-step in Texas with his description of the tours and events around San Antonio in 2022. Ken forgot to wear his lederhosen but I’m sure he will oblige us with full costume when he leads us in the polka as we tour the Hill Country.

    Finally, and most important, I was happy to make sure that our now Past President Claire Dempsey received the equivalent of an auditorium-filled standing ovation for her brave handling of the COVID crisis and keeping us from pandemic panic. Claire (who made darned sure there was a peaceful transfer of power at the end of her term), the Executive Committee, the full board, and all those who pitched in over the last year and a half not only kept us going but also blazed new paths by introducing the Mellon African American Field Schools program and preparing us for the long-sought paid staff person we’ve been after for years. More on those activities in upcoming issues, but for now, thanks and congrats to all!

  • 12 Jun 2021 11:30 AM | Christine R Henry

    Following tradition at VAF, the 2021 awardees were announced with much fanfare.  Each awardee was recognized for their contributions to VAF and to the field of vernacular architecture studies.  Please click on the links below to read the full inspiring stories and view the evocative images of each awardee.

    Advocacy Award: In 2021 VAF honored Mimi and Ron Miller for their advocacy for the preservation and rehabilitation of the broad range of historic resources located in and near Natchez, Mississippi applied consistently and successfully over the course of professional careers that span almost fifty years.

    Catherine W. Bishir Prize:  The 2021 winner of the Catherine W. Bishir Prize is Marta Gutman for her essay, “Intermediate School 201: Race, Space, and Modern Architecture in Harlem,” which appears in Educating Harlem: A Century of Schooling and Resistance in a Black Community, edited by Ansley T. Erickson and Ernest Morrell (Columbia University Press, 2019).   

    Paul E. Buchanan Award: The Paul E. Buchanan Award honors outstanding vernacular architecture and cultural landscape projects within a wide range of formats, other than published books or articles. The recipient of the 2021 Buchanan Award is “Dudley Farm-National Historic Landmark Nomination by Evelyn D. Causey, PhD. This exemplary work embodies the highest standards of meticulous documentation and rigorous analysis that this award was created to honor each year.

    Abbott Lowell Cummings: In a field of extraordinary new publications covering a wide range of buildings and landscapes from California to Germany, this year’s Abbott Lowell Cummings Award winner forces us to rethink something we thought we understood: common American housing in the first half of the twentieth century.  Thomas C. Hubka’s, How the Working-Class Home became Modern, 1900-1940, is an important and beautiful book, the culmination of decades of Hubka’s patient and rigorous fieldwork, and a discerning analysis of buildings, documents, and previous scholarship.

  • 12 Jun 2021 11:20 AM | Christine R Henry

    Buildings and Landscapes, the journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum, is seeking reviewers for current books and exhibitions that would be of interest to VAF members--and potential members. Knowledge and expertise are sought in all areas of practice and study related to the vernacular built environment. Published reviews typically range between 1,500-2,000 words in length. Reviewers do not need to be current VAF members, although membership is strongly encouraged.

    If you are interested in reviewing a current book or exhibition in a particular area of study, or if you would like to see a new book or exhibit considered for review in the journal, please contact reviews editor Rachel Leibowitz.

  • 12 Jun 2021 10:40 AM | Christine R Henry

    by Jim Buckley

    Professor Buckley does his best Vincent Scully imitation at Teotihuacan. Photo courtesy of Jim Buckley.I joined the VAF when I came back to Berkeley to get my PhD in architectural history in the 1990s. It was great to be studying with Paul Groth and Dell Upton and to see the things we talked about up close and personal on the VAF tours, starting with Natchez. I was hooked right away and still consider the VAF my intellectual home. Much of my work debuted in paper form at VAF conferences, with plenty of helpful feedback on those initial ideas.

    My interests at VAF have always been in housing, since I feel that how people live at home says a lot about their culture. My dissertation started out looking at worker housing but morphed into a study of industrial landscapes in California’s redwood country. I’d say cultural landscapes are my primary interest now and I am currently working with our students at University of Oregon on the built environment of African Americans in Portland, OR. I am very excited about the current interest of students in the history of people that the field has not previously emphasized. We all have so much to learn about the lives of people who operated outside of the dominant culture. I feel that that, by their interest in ordinary buildings, VAF members are particularly well-equipped to explore how segregation and prejudice affected the daily lives of marginalized people. I am particularly influenced by the thinking of Dolores Hayden, Gail Dubrow, and Donna Graves in seeking out ways to develop narratives about minority cultures through architectural expression.

    Out of many fond VAF memories, I would say that the tour of stone fruit orchards in California’s Central Valley during the Fresno conference is my favorite because it characterized for me what the VAF is all about. Bill Littmann and I organized the tour with the advice of Paul Groth, who has spent a lifetime looking at and figuring out agricultural landscapes. To have Paul hand down his incredible knowledge as we parsed these fields and packing plants helped me realize again the value of VAF’s sharing of expertise across different subjects and places, all with the intent of better understanding the (ordinary) world around us. My goal as President will be to preserve the wonderful ways we have always shared our knowledge and to find new aspects of the vernacular environment for us to explore using new methods and approaches!

  • 12 Jun 2021 10:30 AM | Christine R Henry

    by Michael J. Chiarappa

    Michael Chiarappa-holding an oyster cracker fish while doing field work documenting the maritime cultural landscape. Photo courtesy of Michael Chiarappa.Growing up, I was fascinated by the vernacular architecture and landscapes of my native Southern New Jersey and those in the greater Philadelphia area. Little did I know at the time, but I shared this curiosity with many others. When I realized that I could actually study the buildings and places that were meaningful in everyday life, I went to the University of Pennsylvania to pursue this interest, and took the American vernacular architecture course being taught by Robert St. George who filled in while Henry Glassie was on leave. Bob introduced the class to the Vernacular Architecture Forum, and, in 1986, I attended my first conference in the Hudson River Valley. As many recall, it was memorable not just for the Dutch building traditions of the region, but for the haute cuisine served throughout the meeting! For someone who had thirsted for a community of like-minded people on the topic, it was an awakening. I was struck by the collegial, welcoming, and encouraging climate of the group—all bound up in an intellectual creativity necessary when exploring the compelling mix of buildings, places, and the people who animated them. Ever since that time the VAF community, and the scholarship emerging from it, has reinforced this sentiment and sustained me in my work. VAF has afforded me the opportunity to see cultural landscapes throughout North America that I would never dreamt of seeing, leaving such settings with a sense of their ethnographic richness. I remember the Fresno meeting where a visiting British scholar asked me what this VAF business was all about, and I simply said, apparently with some affect, that we were a group motivated by the important stories that buildings and places have to offer—he responded, “how fascinating!”

    As many in VAF know, I am particularly drawn to studying the vernacular architecture of maritime communities, particularly the assemblage of buildings used to foster the interface of land and water environments, but even more so, the use of marine resources. The interdisciplinary work of VAF has been invaluable in helping me forge methods and interpretive avenues in this enterprise, and has shaped collaborative work with my colleagues in the field of American environmental history. I have also been an active public historian throughout my career, and VAF has informed this practice more profoundly than any other contributing area. I am proud to say that VAF was pioneering civic engagement and the broader applications of our scholarship well before such trends became fashionable. I often reflect on how VAF benefits, in immeasurable ways, from the work of our colleagues in historic preservation, museums, and cultural resource management—infusing our group with an ethos of being socially relevant and accountable. This mix of colleagues has been instrumental in helping me frame new approaches to conducting field schools throughout my career, and has invigorated my teaching at four different academic institutions.

    I have been grateful for the fullness VAF has offered me, not just professionally, but humanly as well, and I feel this is what contributes to the fruitful spirit of the group. I was warmly welcomed into the organization by such founding members as Catherine Bishir, Tom Carter, Tom Hubka, Sally McMurry, and Carl Lounsbury, to name but a few. Their example inspired me to do the same for each successive wave of younger scholars entering our ranks. I have served two terms on the VAF Board of Directors, served on the editorial board of Buildings and Landscapes, and, in 2014, had the privilege of serving on the organizing committee of the annual meeting featuring the vernacular architecture of Southern New Jersey. I am now delighted to be serving with Lydia Mattice Brandt as co-editor of Buildings and Landscapes, enjoying a front row seat amidst exciting new work that continues to emerge from our field.

  • 12 Jun 2021 10:20 AM | Christine R Henry

    by Philip Mills Herrington

    photo courtesy of Philip HerringtonI have always loved houses. When I was in elementary school, I was always drawing houses and building them out of Lego. My parents helped me build a miniature house out of cardboard that we furnished using a book from the library called Dollhouse Magic. It showed you how to, for instance, cut up sponges and then glue them together to make sofas and loveseats. It bothered me when dollhouses did not have staircases, so this house had full flights of stairs. It also had a balcony made from a Kleenex box.

    In my research I am often trying to figure out the scale and appearance of buildings that are no longer standing, and I got my start in this kind of work by speaking to my grandmother when I was in middle school. She grew up in a small town in Georgia, and her house was next door to a parking lot where her childhood home once stood. We only had one or two exterior photographs of the old house, but it was enough to begin working out an outline of the perimeter. My grandmother was nearly blind, so she couldn’t see what I was drawing, but through talking we virtually walked through the house together, so I was able to create a plan of both floors. I even mapped out the furniture and pictures on the walls.

    Much of my research is on plantation buildings and landscapes, an interest I developed growing up in Georgia. I must love a challenge (or a headache) since the buildings on these complexes were almost always built of wood, they tended to be quite ephemeral. It can be very difficult to generalize about plantation architecture because, somewhat surprisingly, little is known about most of it. As both the primary and secondary resources tend to be slim (and often focus on a handful of exceptional sites), by necessity I have turned to a variety sources and subjects for material. In the last few years, I’ve looked a lot at topography and geology to give me a better sense of how soil fertility, elevation, and native flora shaped the historic built environment and the lives of people. I’m especially interested in how people of the past perceived of places as healthy or productive or degraded and how those perceptions affected everyday life. I’m a very “deep dive” researcher, which is time consuming, but it is rewarding because it allows me to better reconstruct the complex spatial dynamics of the built environment of slavery.

    I am excited to be a member of the VAF board because I am passionate about VAF’s mission to study and preserve everyday buildings and landscapes. VAF is an especially important organization right now because there is such an urgent need and desire for the stories of “ordinary” people. Our work illuminates how buildings and landscapes can be used as documents that reveal the lives of people who are poorly represented in the textual historical record. It is also just a fun organization to be in. It is a space that reminds me how much joy there is in researching, exploring, and documenting buildings.

  • 12 Jun 2021 10:10 AM | Christine R Henry

    by Sam Biggers

    Mysterious stone foundations in Augusta County, VA. photo courtesy of Sam Biggers

    Over the past few years, members of the Augusta County Historical Society formed an unofficial “Old Buildings Committee.” Formed in much the same vein as VAF’s formation decades ago, the mission of the committee is to study old buildings in Augusta County, Virginia through careful and methodical documentation. Our escapades have primarily brought us to properties threatened through neglect; several which have already been lost. In many cases, our measured drawings and photographs are the only remaining record for lost buildings.

    In 2019, members of the group visited a fascinating site in north-central Augusta County that left us scratching our heads. The site sits just above the Middle River, where the owner contacted us about a mystery pair of stone foundations. In profile, they appear to be ramps, with a gap in the middle at grade.

    Stone foundations from above, Augusta County, VA. photo courtesy of Sam BiggersOur thinking was that these were used for agricultural purposes, namely to load materials into a cart or something similar. We also considered an industrial use, such as milling. However, the site sits 30 feet to the north, on a bluff over Middle River, and is not located at an established road. Historic maps and aerials do not give any additional clues as to lost roads.

    The homeowner is curious, as is our cadre of abandoned building admirers. If anyone has any ideas, please contact me at sambiggers@gmail.com. I’d appreciate any and all input.

  • 12 Jun 2021 10:05 AM | Christine R Henry

    While researching structures to document for a show of watercolors celebrating the 200th anniversary of the construction of the Erie Canal, I discovered a building in Whitehall, N.Y. that I could not identify.  I asked the historian of the Erie Canal National Historic Corridor and he said – “It is a coal bunker.”

    Initial internet references were directions to build coal bunkers for my electric train set. From further investigation, I learned that in the 19th and early 20th century coal bunkers were located on banks along the canals and beside railroads as storage and distribution depots.  The companies also stored, shipped or sold two other major commodities-- ice and grain.  A few of these large-scale, remnant vernacular buildings still dot the landscape.

    The typical structure (Randolph Coal and Ice, Vermont, and West Seneca Coal and Ice, New York) was a silo built like a barrel with iron bands holding the wooden staves together.  In Whitehall, the iron bands were made of large timbers creating a compression ring – spaced closer at the bottom.  (The ice department was in an attached, thick-walled structure insulated with sawdust and capped with more sawdust.)

    A conveyor from the canal boats or railroad cars loaded the coal into the silos.  Horse-drawn carts—and later trucks-- entered under the silo where chutes dumped the coal into the delivery vehicles.  The Brown Brothers Coal and Ice structure in Little Falls, N.Y. put the rail cars on top of the coal bunker and vertically integrated their facility – cutting down on the amount of handling of the coal by using gravity.

    My investigation inspired me to paint several of these disappearing historic structures…since documenting the Randolph Coal and Ice Coal bunker, it has been torn down for parking.

  • 12 Jun 2021 10:00 AM | Christine R Henry

    compiled by Travis Olson

    Aksamija, Azra, Raafat Majzoub, and Melina Philippou, eds. Design to Live: Everyday Inventions from a Refugee Camp. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2021.

    Allen, Michael R. “Trumpism, Neoclassicism, and Architecture as Propaganda.” PLATFORM (blog), May 17, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/trumpism-neoclassicism-and-architecture-as-propaganda.

    Allison, Noah. “Unpacking the Composition of a Multiethnic Streetscape in Queens, New York.” PLATFORM (blog), April 12, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/unpacking-the-composition-of-a-multiethnic-streetscape-in-queens-new-york.

    Anorve-Tschirgi, Conchita, Ehsan Abushadi, and Nour El Refai. The Architecture of Ramses Wissa Wassef. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2021.

    Aslet, Clive. The Story of The Country House. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2021.

    Bagley, Joseph M. Boston’s Oldest Buildings and Where to Find Them. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press, 2021.

    Bandes, Susan J. Mid-Michigan Modern: From Frank Lloyd Wright to Googie. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2021.

    Bates, Niya, and Louis P. Nelson. “Race and Place in United States: Toward Repair.” PLATFORM (blog), April 26, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/race-and-place-in-united-states-toward-repair.

    Becker, Leah Marie. “What 19th-Century Domestic Manuals Say about Housing as Infrastructure.” Edge Effects (blog), April 15, 2021. https://edgeeffects.net/housing-as-infrastructure/.

    Bradley, Barrie Scardino. Improbable Metropolis: Houston’s Architectural and Urban History. Roger Fullington Series in Architecture. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2020.

    Brisson, Steven C. Architectural Missionary: D. Fred Charlton in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, 1887-1918. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2021.

    Burke, Juan Luis. Architecture and Urbanism in Viceregal Mexico: Puebla de Los Ángeles, 16th-18th Centuries. Abingdon, Oxon and New York: Routledge, 2021.

    Calder, Barnabas, and G. A. Bremner. “Buildings and Energy: Architectural History in the Climate Emergency.” The Journal of Architecture 26, no. 2 (February 17, 2021): 79–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2021.1891950.

    Clarke, Nicholas J. Common Ground: Dutch-South African Architectural Exchanges, 1902-1961. University of Washington Press, 2021.

    Cohen, Shelly, and Tovi Fenster. “Architecture of Care: Social Architecture and Feminist Ethics.” The Journal of Architecture 26, no. 3 (April 3, 2021): 257–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2021.1899263.

    Dangerfield, David W. “Just beyond the Reach of Servitude: Free Black Farmers in Antebellum South Carolina’s Upcountry.” American Nineteenth Century History 22, no. 1 (January 2, 2021): 27–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/14664658.2021.1893482.

    Devecka, Martin. Broken Cities: A Historical Sociology of Ruins. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2020.

    Eagle, Jonna. “Introduction: Power, Pain, and the Cultural Work of Authenticity in American Studies and Beyond.” American Quarterly 73, no. 1 (2021): 123–33. https://doi.org/10.1353/aq.2021.0006.

    Fisher, Michelle Millar, Amber Winick, and Alexandra Lange. Designing Motherhood. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2021.

    Fontenot, Anthony. Non-Design: Architecture, Liberalism and the Market. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2021.

    Gitler, Inbal Ben-Asher. “New Brutalism, New Nation: Ram Karmi’s Assimilation of Brutalism in Israel’s Arid Region Architecture.” The Journal of Architecture 26, no. 3 (April 3, 2021): 316–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2021.1896566.

    Guo, P., and W. Ding. “The Relationship of Building Types and Plots to Changing Family Structures and Land Systems in Chinese Settlements.” Urban Morphology 25, no. 1 (April 2021): 3–22.

    Hailey, Charlie. The Porch: Meditations on the Edge of Nature. Urbana: University of Chicago Press, 2021.

    Hugill, David. Settler Colonial City: Racism and Inequity in Postwar Minneapolis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2021.

    Isenstadt, Sandy. Electric Light: An Architectural History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2018.

    Kalman, Harold. “The Reassembly of the Harold Kalman Rideau Street Convent Chapel in Ottawa.” APT Bulletin: The Journal of Preservation Technology 52, no. 1 (2021): 35–43.

    Kissel, Stephen T. America’s Religious Crossroads: Faith and Community in the Emerging Midwest. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2021.

    Kosec, Miloš, and Leslie Topp. “Fenced Off.” PLATFORM (blog), April 19, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/fenced-off.

    Lewis, Philippa, and Adrian Forty. Stories from Architecture: Behind the Lines at Drawing Matter. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2021.

    Martinko, Whitney. Historic Real Estate: Market Morality and the Politics of Preservation in the Early United States. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2020.

    Milheiro, Ana Vaz. “Late Portuguese Colonialism, Research, and Propaganda in Africa: The Promotion of Territorial Occupation and Architectural Infrastructure by the General Agency for Overseas.” The Journal of Architecture 26, no. 2 (February 17, 2021): 212–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2021.1897644.

    Mitchell, Koritha. From Slave Cabins to the White House: Homemade Citizenship in African American Culture. The New Black Studies Series. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2020.

    Rashid, Mahbub. Physical Space and Spatiality in Muslim Societies: Notes on the Social Production of Cities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2021.

    Rawlings, William. Lighthouses of the Georgia Coast. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press 2021.

    Schindler, Susanne. “Housing Beyond and Within the Market, Part 1: Cooperative Housing and the Racial Wealth Gap.” PLATFORM (blog), March 29, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/housing-beyond-and-within-the-market-part-1-cooperative-housing-and-the-racial-wealth-gap.

    ———. “Housing Beyond and Within the Market, Part 2: Cooperative Conditions in Zurich.” PLATFORM (blog), April 5, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/housing-beyond-and-within-the-market-part-2-cooperative-conditions-in-zurich.

    ———. “Housing Beyond and Within the Market, Part 3: Cooperatives in Boston.” PLATFORM (blog), April 12, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/housing-beyond-and-within-the-market-part-3-cooperatives-in-boston.

    Shoked, Noam. “Urban Forms in the Occupied West Bank.” PLATFORM (blog), May 3, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/urban-forms-in-the-occupied-west-bank.

    Slocum, Karla. Black Towns, Black Futures: The Enduring Allure of a Black Place in the American West. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019.

    Stewart, Whitney Nell. “A Protected Place: The Material Culture of Home-Making for Stagville’s Enslaved Residents.” Winterthur Portfolio 54, no. 4 (December 1, 2020): 245–70. https://doi.org/10.1086/713896.

    Tarr, Alexander, and Rachel Bahinsky. “Cultural Landscapes of Struggle and Power in the San Francisco Bay Area.” PLATFORM (blog), May 10, 2021. https://www.platformspace.net/home/cultural-landscapes-of-struggle-and-power-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area.

    Tubelo, Renata, Lucelia Rodrigues, and Mark Gillott. “Characterising Brazilian Housing through an Investigation of Policies, Architecture, and Statistics.” The Journal of Architecture 26, no. 2 (February 17, 2021): 191–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2021.1895279.

    Van Acker, Wouter and Thomas Mical, eds. Architecture and Ugliness: Anti-Aesthetics and the Ugly in Postmodern Architecture.  London and New York, Bloomsbury Press, 2021.

    Vigiola, G.Q. “Barrio Morphology and Private Space: The Social Drivers of Informal Urban Settlements in Caracas.” Urban Morphology 25, no. 1 (April 2021): 43–56.

    Wimark, Thomas. “Homemaking and Perpetual Liminality among Queer Refugees.” Social & Cultural Geography 22, no. 5 (June 13, 2021): 647–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2019.1619818.

    Xie, Yinrui, and Paul Walker. “Chinese and Christian? The Architecture of West China Union University.” The Journal of Architecture 26, no. 3 (April 3, 2021): 394–424. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2021.1897030.

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